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The purpose of this study was to examine whether maternal helicopter parenting and paternal helicopter parenting mediated the relationship between maternal failure mindset and paternal failure mindset and emerging adults’ intelligence mindset. Participants were 99 emerging adults between the ages of 17 and 19 who completed an online survey in a location most comfortable for them. I used three measures to determine whether helicopter parenting mediated the relationship between the emerging adults’ perception of their maternal and paternal caregivers’ failure mindsets and the emerging adults’ intelligence mindsets. Helicopter parenting behaviors were found to mediate the relationship between mothers’ failure mindsets and their children’s intelligence mindsets. When emerging adults reported that their mothers’ viewed failure negatively, their mothers engaged in more helicopter parenting behaviors, and they were more likely to have fixed intelligence mindsets. These relationships were not significant for fathers. According to prior research, people with fixed intelligence mindsets tend to cope badly with failure, have little motivation for approaching challenges, and often feel hopeless and question their abilities.
Boigegrain, Nichole M., "The Effect of Maternal and Paternal Caregivers’ Failure Mindsets and Helicopter Parenting on Emerging Adults’ Intelligence Mindsets" (2020). Student Research Submissions. 352.