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Journal Title

Essays in Economic & Business History

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Recently uncovered data on teachers’ salaries in Virginia in 1906 allow for more precise and consistent estimations of marginal returns to certification and formal education than had been available in previous studies. Virginia's “separate but equal” educational system paid black teachers in rural counties lower wages than it paid white teachers and on average paid a lower premium to blacks for certification and formal education than it paid to whites. In incorporated cities, returns to certification and normal school education were about the same for black teachers and white teachers, although average salaries were lower for black teachers.


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First published in 1976, annually since 1983, and currently in its 40th year of publication, Essays in Economic & Business History now operates as an online open access journal. Articles for the journal are selected by double blind review process. EEBH provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.